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Kutsutsana kwa Herbicide

Kukana kwa Herbicide kumatanthauza kutengera kwa mtundu wa udzu wa udzu wopulumuka chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito herbicide yomwe anthu oyamba anali pachiwopsezo. Biotype ndi gulu la zomera mkati mwa mitundu yomwe imakhala ndi zikhalidwe zina (monga kukana mankhwala enaake) osadziwika kwa anthu onse.

Kulimbana ndi herbicide ndi vuto lalikulu lomwe olimbana ndi olima aku North Carolina. Padziko lonse lapansi, mitundu yoposa 100 ya namsongole amadziwika kuti imagonjetsedwa ndi mankhwala amodzi kapena angapo omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Ku North Carolina, pakadali pano tili ndi biotype ya goosegrass yolimbana ndi ma herbicides a dinitroaniline (Prowl, Sonalan, ndi Treflan), mtundu wachisamba chosagwirizana ndi MSMA ndi DSMA, komanso mtundu wa ryegrass wapachaka wosagwirizana ndi Hoelon.

Mpaka posachedwa, panali nkhawa yaying'ono pakukula kwa mankhwala a herbicide ku North Carolina. Ngakhale tili ndi mitundu itatu yokhala ndi mitundu ya biotypes yomwe imagonjetsedwa ndi mankhwala ena ophera tizilombo, kupezeka kwa mitundu iyi kudafotokozedwa mosavuta ndikulima mbewu munthawi imodzi. Olima omwe anali akusinthasintha mbewu sankafunika kuda nkhawa kuti angakane. Zinthu zasintha m'zaka zaposachedwa chifukwa chakukula ndi kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwakukulu kwa mankhwala ena ophera tizilombo omwe ali ndi machitidwe ofanana (Matebulo 15 ndi 16). Njira yogwiritsira ntchito imatanthawuza njira yomwe herbicide imapha chomera chomwe chingatengeke mosavuta. Masiku ano, mankhwala ophera tizilombo omwe ali ndi machitidwe omwewo atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazomera zingapo zomwe zimatha kulimidwa mozungulira. Chodetsa nkhawa kwambiri ndi mankhwala a herbicides omwe amaletsa dongosolo la ma enzyme a ALS (Gulu 15). Ma herbicides angapo omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi ALS inhibitors. Kuphatikiza apo, mankhwala ambiri ophera tizilombo omwe akuyembekezeka kulembedwa m'zaka zisanu zikubwerazi ndi ma ALS inhibitors. Monga gulu, zoletsa za ALS zili ndi mawonekedwe angapo omwe amawoneka kuti amawapangitsa kuti azikhala olimba pakukula kwa mbewu.

Herbicides amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mbewu chifukwa choti ndi othandiza kwambiri kapena ndalama zambiri kuposa njira zina zothanirana ndi udzu. Ngati kulimbana ndi mankhwala enaake ophera tizilombo kapena banja lake likusintha, mankhwala ena oyenera atha kukhalapo. Mwachitsanzo, pakadali pano palibe mankhwala ena obwezeretsanso heryecass osagonjetsedwa ndi Hoelon. Chifukwa chake, mankhwala ophera tizilombo ayenera kuonedwa ngati zida zotetezedwa. Tiyenera kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala a herbicides m'njira yomwe imalepheretsa kukana.

Kumvetsetsa kwamomwe kukana kumasintha ndikofunikira kuti mumvetsetse momwe mungapewere kukana. Pali zofunikira ziwiri zakusintha kwa mankhwala a herbicide. Choyamba, namsongole yemwe ali ndi majini omwe amatsutsa kukana ayenera kupezeka mwa anthu wamba. Chachiwiri, kukakamizidwa kusankha chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mankhwala a herbicide omwe anthu osowawa sagonjetsedwa akuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa anthu. Anthu osagwirizana, ngati alipo, ndi ochepa kwambiri. Nthawi zambiri, anthu osagonjera amapezeka pafupipafupi kuyambira 1 pa 100,000 mpaka 1 mu 100 miliyoni. Ngati mankhwala omwewo amagwiritsidwanso ntchito mosalekeza, anthu omwe atengeka ndi kachilombo amaphedwa koma omwe sagonjetsedwa samapwetekedwa ndikupanga mbewu. Ngati kusankhaku kukupitilira kwa mibadwo ingapo, mitundu yotsutsana nayo pamapeto pake idzakhala anthu ochulukirapo. Pamenepo, kulandila udzu wovomerezeka sikungapezekenso ndi mankhwala enaake ophera herbicide kapena herbicides.

Gawo limodzi lofunikira kwambiri panjira yopewa kusinthika kwa mankhwala a herbicide ndikutembenuza kwa herbicides okhala ndi njira zosiyanasiyana. Musagwiritse ntchito mankhwala a herbicides omwe ali pachiwopsezo chachikulu ku mbeu ziwiri zotsatizana. Chimodzimodzinso, musagwiritsire ntchito kangapo mankhwala ophera tizilombo omwe ali pachiwopsezo chimodzi. Musagwiritse ntchito mankhwala a herbicides m'gulu lomwe lili pachiwopsezo chochepa kwambiri kuposa mbewu ziwiri zotsatizana. Mankhwala a herbicides omwe ali pachiwopsezo ayenera kusankhidwa akawongolera zovuta za Tank zosakanikirana kapena kugwiritsa ntchito njira yofananira ya herbicides yokhala ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zogwirira ntchito nthawi zambiri amapatsidwa ngati gawo la njira yolimbana ndi kukana. Ngati zinthu zomwe zimasakanikirana ndi akasinja kapena ntchito zotsatizana zasankhidwa mwanzeru, njirayi itha kukhala yothandiza kwambiri pakuchedwetsa kukana kusinthika. Tsoka ilo, zofunikira zambiri pakusakaniza kwamatangi kapena kugwiritsa ntchito motsatizana kuti mupewe kukana sizikwaniritsidwa ndi zosakaniza zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri. Kukhala othandiza kwambiri popewa chisinthiko chotsutsana, mankhwala a herbicides omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito motsatizana kapena muzosakanikirana zamatangi ayenera kukhala ndi mphamvu zowongolera zomwezo ndipo akuyenera kulimbikira komweko.

Pomwe zingatheke, phatikizani njira zowonongera zosagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala monga kulima mu pulogalamu yoyendetsera udzu. Sungani zolemba zabwino zogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala a herbicide m'munda uliwonse kuti mudzagwiritse ntchito mtsogolo.

Kuzindikira namsongole wosamva mankhwala. Zolephera zambiri zakuchotsa udzu sizomwe zimachitika chifukwa chokana mankhwala a herbicide. Musanaganize kuti namsongole yemwe akupulumuka chifukwa cha mankhwala a herbicide sagonjetsedwa, chotsani zina zonse zomwe zingayambitse mavuto. Zomwe zingayambitse kulephera kwa udzu ndikuphatikizira zinthu monga kugwiritsa ntchito molakwika (monga kuchepa, kuchepa, kusaphatikizika, kapena kusowa wothandizira); nyengo yosagwirizana ndi ntchito yabwino ya herbicide; Kusagwiritsa ntchito nthawi yoyenera kwa mankhwala a herbicide (makamaka, kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ophera mankhwala atatha msinkhu pambuyo poti namsongole ndi wamkulu kwambiri kuti sangathe kuwongolera); ndi udzu womwe ukuwuka pambuyo pothira mankhwala a herbicide yanthawi yayitali.

Zina zonse zomwe zingayambitse kusayendetsa bwino zithetsedwa, zotsatirazi zitha kuwonetsa kupezeka kwa mtundu wosagwirizana ndi mankhwala a herbicide: (1) zamoyo zonse zomwe zimayang'aniridwa ndi herbicide kupatula imodzi kuti iziyang'aniridwa bwino; (2) Mitengo yathanzi yamitunduyi ikulowetsedwa pakati pazomera zamtundu womwewo zomwe zidaphedwa; (3) zamoyo zomwe sizikulamuliridwa nthawi zambiri zimatha kugwidwa ndi herbicide; ndipo (4) mundawu uli ndi mbiri yogwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mankhwala akupha omwe akuphwanyidwa kapena mankhwala ophera tizilombo omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito chimodzimodzi. Ngati mukukayikira kukana, siyani nthawi yomweyo kugwiritsa ntchito herbicide yomwe ikufunsidwayo ndi mankhwala ena akupha omwe ali ndi machitidwe omwewo.

 


Post nthawi: May-07-2021